Activated carbon derived from cherry flower biowaste with a self-doped heteroatom and large specific surface area for supercapacitor and sodium-ion battery applications
Herein, cherry flower waste-derived activated carbon (CFAC) with self-doped nitrogen is synthesized as a viable energy storage material for green and sustainable energy solutions. The activated carbon derived in this way is examined as an electric double-layer capacitance (EDLC)-type electrode material and sodium-ion battery (NIB) electrode material, and commendable performance is demonstrated for both of these energy storage applications. The specific surface area (SSA) and nitrogen content are observed to play a very delicate role in determining the charge storage ability of the CFAC, and the performance is optimized only by carefully balancing both of these properties. The optimized CFAC electrode supplied an excellent performance with a specific capacitance of 333.8 F g−1 and capacity is maintained to more than 96% even after 38,000 charge-discharge cycles as an EDLC-type supercapacitor electrode material. Likewise, the CFAC/NIB also yielded remarkable performance with an average specific capacity of 150 mAh g−1 and capacity retention of more than 84% after 200 charge-discharge cycles. Furthermore, an electrokinetic study was performed for both supercapacitor and NIB applications to identify the contribution from surface and diffusion type charge storage phenomena, consequently highlighting the role of the SSA and nitrogen content in the CFAC matrix.